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Healthy adult

1. Sexually transmitted infections



Tsindrio eto raha hijery ny boky
Source : USAID - Santénet2 - MINENVEF

Symptoms and treatment

Symptoms of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are not always visible. Some people look healthy but might be infected.

People infected by STIs might present one or more of the following symptoms :

  • sensation of pain and burning around the genital area during urination or during intercourse
  • itching
  • pus/bloody discharge
  • open sores or swelling

If these symptoms are present and you suspect you might be infected by STIs, go immediately to a health center or to a doctor to get the proper treatment to prevent the infection from worsening.

Pregnant women should go directly to the closest health center to get tested to know if they are infected with an STI, to facilitate their pregnancy, the delivery and the baby's health.

If you are infected with an STI, inform your partner(s) know so your partner(s) can go immediately to a health center or a doctor to get tested and treated.

Ask your doctors about the following medicines for the treatment of STIs: Cura7 for people with genital discharge, and Genicure for those who have sores or ulcers.

Danger

Warning! STIs can be dangerous if not properly treated.

Transmission

You can get STIs such as genital discharge or sores if you have unprotected sex with an infected person. For example, if you or your partner does not use condom

Prevention

Abstaining from having sex is the most effective way to protect yourself from getting an STI. If you must have sex, you can avoid getting infected by having sexual relations with only one person who is faithful to you and who is not infected. The third way is the use of condoms like Protector Plus, FIMAILO, or FEELING for women, during each sexual intercourse. It is strongly recommended to reduce the number of sexual partners to protect yourself from getting STIs.

Raha te-ahazo ity horonantsary ity ianao dia tsindrio eto
Source : PSI Madagascar
Raha te-ahazo ity horonantsary ity ianao dia tsindrio eto
Source : PSI Madagascar

2. HIV/AIDS



Tsindrio eto raha hijery ny boky
Source : USAID - Santénet2 - MINENVEF
 

Symptoms and treatment

HIV infection does not always have external signs; People who are HIV positive might look healthy. 

Danger

Warning! AIDS is fatal and has no cure.

Transmission

HIV is a sexually transmitted virus that is transmitted during unprotected sex, i.e. intercourse without condom with a person who is already HIV positive. HIV is also transmitted through an exchange of infected blood, by the means of blood stained instruments: such as syringes, razor blades, knives, or other instruments. HIV positive mothers can also transmit the disease to their babies either in the womb or from breastfeeding.

HIV is NOT transmitted through hand shaking, mutual sharing of clothes or eating utensils.

Prevention

Abstaining from having sex is the most effective way to protect yourself from getting HIV. If you must have sex, you can avoid getting infected by having sexual relations with only one person who is faithful to you and who is not infected. Another way is also the use of condoms like Protector Plus, FIMAILO, or FEELING (for women), during each sexual intercourse.

It is strongly recommended to reduce the number of sexual partners to protect yourself from getting HIV/AIDS.

To prevent HIV/AIDS, you and your partner(s) should get tested before having sex.

Pregnant women should directly go to the closest health center to get tested for HIV. Health practitioners can advise pregnant women about the best way to protect themselves and the babies in their womb.

Raha te-ahazo ity horonantsary ity ianao dia tsindrio eto
Source : PSI Madagascar
Raha te-ahazo ity horonantsary ity ianao dia tsindrio eto
Source
: PSI Madagascar
Raha te-ahazo ity horonantsary ity ianao dia tsindrio eto
Source
: PSI Madagascar
Raha te-ahazo ity horonantsary ity ianao dia tsindrio eto
Source
: PSI Madagascar

3. Malaria



Tsindrio eto raha hijery ny boky
Source : USAID - Santénet2 - MINENVEF

Symptoms and treatment

If you present one of the following danger signs:

  • convulsions
  • loss of consciousness
  • persistent high temperature
  • weakness
  • stiff neck
  • frequent nausea, absence of appetite
  • difficulty breathing

go immediately to a health center as you may be infected by severe malaria.

If you are having a temperature but not presenting any danger signs, you should go immediately to a Community Health Worker or a health center to receive the correct treatment.

If you are infected by malaria and have already received treatment but you did not get better IMMEDIATELY GO TO A HEALTH CENTER.

For pregnant women, malaria might lead to a miscarriage, a premature delivery, and potentially, the death of the fetus. Moreover, once born, the baby might be under weight because of malaria.
Pregnant women need to visit a health center or see a doctor to get anti-malaria medicine like SP or Sulfadoxine Pyrimethamine. Such medicine cannot be administrated without a medical prescription.
 

Danger

Warning! Malaria can be fatal.

Transmission

Only mosquito bites transmit malaria. Mosquitoes that carry malaria bite only at night. 

Prevention

It is important for the entire family, but especially for children less than 5 years old and pregnant women to sleep every night, all year round under an insecticide-impregnated bed net such as SuperMoustiquaire to avoid mosquito bites.

4. Tuberculosis or chronic coughs

Symptoms and treatment

A TB infected person frequently coughs, sometimes with sputum or blood, and has chest pains, weakness, weight loss, fever and night sweats.

If you are healthy, your body may be able to kill or control the TB germs so that they do not make you sick. When your body is weak or unhealthy, like people who are infected with the HIV/AIDS virus, your body will likely not be able to control the infection and you will have an active TB infection which can cause serious problems and even death.

If you have any of these symptoms you should immediately go to a health center to get tested. Infected persons are treated with a six-month course of daily antibiotics. However, TB can be correctly treated if you follow the treatment correctly and continuously. 

Danger

Warning! If left untreated TB can be fatal!

Transmission

Tuberculosis or chronic cough is a contagious disease that spreads through the air. TB germs, known as bacilli are transmitted when an infected person coughs, sneezes, talks or spits. Only a very small amount of bacilli is enough to transmit the disease. 

Prevention

To prevent TB, you should avoid close contact with people who have a chronic cough. You should encourage those people to visit a health center to get tested for TB

5. Good Nutrition

The need for it  

It is important to eat healthy food to keep your body healthy, to live longer and to protect yourself from diseases.

The first step is to eat three times a day and to have snacks twice a day, in between meals. These meals should be balanced and varied according to a healthy diet.

Balanced meals  

A balanced meal should contain the three categories of foods that the body needs every day. Since no single food contains all of the nutrients that the body requires, you need to make an effort to eat a varied diet, with foods from all three categories every day and try not to eat the same food at every meal.

Categories of healthy food  

Here are the three categories of food that you should try to eat every day for a healthy diet:

1) Food that provides energy

Dried beans/seeds and cereals bring energy to the body to enable it to move and work. Every meal should contain some sort of beans/seeds and cereals like rice, corn or bread.

2) Food that provides building capacity

Meats and protein bring building capacity to the body to help it grow and satisfy its needs. Every meal should contain protein like milk, eggs, chicken meat, beef, pork, fish, beans or nuts.

3) Food that provides defense

Fruits and vegetables provide the vitamins and minerals that the body needs to prevent it from getting diseases and to work properly. There are many fruits and vegetables that you can eat either during meals or in-between snacks. Examples are: banana, mango, apple, litchi, papaya, squash, courgette, melon, greens, peas, carrots, tomato, etc. 

Additional information

You also needs to drink a lot of clean water every day and to wash the food you eat. For that, use water treated with Sur'eau or water that had been boiled for 20 mn.

You also need to use salt that contains iodine and fluorine.

6. Questions and answers

6.1. STIs

How are STIs transmitted?

If you do not protect yourself with a condom while having sex, you can catch a sexually transmitted infection and will then have genital discharge or genital ulceration.

How can I protect myself from catching an STI? 

There are three ways to prevent from getting STIs: abstain completely from sexual relations, be faithful to one partner who is faithful to you and does not have an infection or use a condom. 

What products prevent STIs??

Use condoms like FIMAILO, Protector Plus or FEELING with every sexual partner each time you engage in sexual relations.

What are the symptoms of STIs?

STI symptoms: In the genital area, unusual pain during urination or intercourse, itching, pus/bloody discharge or open sores.

What should I do if I think I have an STI?

If you have an STI visit your local health clinic or doctor as soon as possible to receive the proper treatment.

What products treat STIs??

Ask your doctor about Cura 7 for genital discharge and Genicure for genital ulcerations.

6.2. HIV/AIDS

How is HIV transmitted?

Three ways of transmission: unprotected sex, from infected mother to child or from exchanging infected blood by sharing blood stained instruments.

Is there a cure for HIV?

Warning! HIV/AIDS is a fatal disease with no known cure.

How can I protect myself from HIV?

There are three ways to prevent from getting HIV/AIDs: abstain completely from sexual relations, be faithful to one partner who is faithful to you and does not have an infection or us a condom.

What else can I do to protect myself from HIV?

Besides having protected sex, do not share blood exchanging instruments like needles. If you are pregnant, get tested for HIV/AIDs at a health center or doctor's office.

What products prevent HIV?

Use condoms like FIMAILO, Protector Plus or FEELING with every sexual partner each time you engage in sexual relations.

How can a pregnant woman protect her unborn baby against HIV?

Pregnant women should go to the nearest health center to get tested for HIV/AIDS .

What are the symptoms of HIV/AIDS ?

People infected by HIV/AIDS might not present any symptoms. Even healthy looking people might be infected by HIV/AIDS.  

6.3. Malaria

How is malaria transmitted?

Only mosquitoes transmit malaria and mosquitoes that carry malaria bite only at night.

Is malaria dangerous?

Warning! Malaria can be fatal and can create major problems for pregnant women. .

How can I protect myself against malaria?

Every night, each member of the family should sleep under a long lasting insecticide-impregnated bed net, especially children under the age of five and pregnant women .

What should pregnant women do to protect themselves against malaria?

Pregnant women should go to the health center or doctor and ask for malaria prophylaxis called Sulfadoxine Primethamine (SP).

What should I use to protect myself against malaria?

Use an insecticide treated bed net. Health centers distribute some to pregnant women. SuperMoustiquaires bed nets are also available for 3 000 Ar at retail outlets. .

What are the symptoms of malaria?

Symptoms: high temperature, cold sweats, headaches, joint pains, sensation of cold, vomiting or nausea, possibility of loss of consciousness.

What should I do if I have these symptoms?

If you have any of these symptoms of severe malaria, go promptly to a health center.

What are the bad consequences of malaria for pregnant women?

Miscarriage, premature delivery and potentially, the death of the foetus.

6.4. Tuberculosis or chronic coughs

How is Tuberculosis (TB) transmitted?

TB is transmitted through the air. The bacteria are spread when the infected person coughs, sneezes, talks or spits.

Is TB fatal?

Warning! TB is fatal if untreated.

How can I protect myself from TB?

Avoid close contact with people who have a chronic cough. Encourage these people to get tested for TB .

What are the symptoms of tuberculosis?

For active TB: coughing, sometimes with sputum or blood, chest pains, weakness, weight loss, fever and night sweats.

What should I do if I have TB symptoms?

Go immediately go to a health center if you have any of the TB symptoms.

What is the treatment for TB?

TB treatment involves a six-month course of antibiotics. One must take the antibiotics daily and finish the complete treatment.  

6.5. Healthy Diet

Why is a healthy diet important?

A healthy diet is important because it keeps your body strong, helps you live longer and protects you against diseases.

What is a healthy diet?

Every day, eat three meals and two snacks. These meals and snacks should be balanced and varied with healthy foods.

What is a balanced diet?

Meals that contain the three main categories of food that your body needs every day: grains or cereals, protein and fruits and vegetables.

Why are grains and cereals important?

Grains and cereals give your body energy to move and perform activities. At every meal, you should have some sort of grain or cereal such as rice, corn, or bread.

Why is protein important?

Protein provides your body the building capacity. It is found in milk, eggs, all sorts of meat, fish, beans and nuts.

Why are fruits and vegetables important?

Eat fruits and vegetables at every meal. They provide vitamins and minerals that help your body prevent illnesses and function properly.

What else can I do to improve my health?

Drink plenty of clean water every day, prepare your food with clean water and use salt that contains iodine and fluoride.

How can I clean my water?

Use Sur'Eau for your drinking and cleaning water, or boil water during 30 mn before using or drinking it.